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Thread: ABAP Programming

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    Length of a field.


    Number of decimal places of a field.


    Output length of a field.


    Data type of a field.












    On Commit flag. This system field is set to different values depending on the call status of an ABAP program. Of these, only the value of ‘P’ is guaranteed. If at all, SY-ONCOM must only be queried for ‘P’.

    The value 'P' means that the program is already executing a subroutine started using PERFORM … ON COMMIT and therefore a further subroutine call using PERFORM ... ON COMMIT would cause a runtime error.



















    Call status of an executable program.


    Call type of an executable program.








    Extended function code Is filled, like SY-UCOMM, by user actions on lists. Before the length of SY-UCOMM was increased from 4 to 70 characters, SY-XCODE was used internally to evaluate lengthy entries in the command field of the list’s standard toolbar. Use SY-UCOMM in application programs.


    SYSTEM-EXIT subroutine.


    SYSTEM-EXIT program.

    Obsolete System Fields
    In the transition from R/2 to R/3, some system fields were carried over that are no longer filled. These system fields are obsolete and can no longer be used.

    In R/2, ID for which SAP applications are installed. Not filled in R/3.

    In R/2, ID for daily background scheduling. Not filled in R/3.

    In R/2, ID for monthly background scheduling. Not filled in R/3.

    In R/2, ID for single background scheduling. Not filled in R/3.

    In R/2, ID for immediate background scheduling. Not filled in R/3.

    In R/2, ID for weekly background scheduling. Not filled in R/3.

    In R/2, root name of request report for background processing. Not filled in R/3.

    In R/2, ID for immediate spool output for background processing. Not filled in R/3.

    In R/2, rate specification/result field from CURRENCY CONVERSION. Not filled in R/3.

    In R/2, table rate from CURRENCY CONVERSION. Not filled in R/3.
    In R/2, rate date from CURRENCY CONVERSION. Not filled in R/3.

    In R/2, rate table from CURRENCY CONVERSION. Not filled in R/3.

    In R/2, rate type from CURRENCY CONVERSION. Not filled in R/3.

    Dialog system of R/2 System Not filled in R/3.

    Previously, current function code menu. Not filled in R/3.

    Local database, not implemented.

    Local database operation, not implemented.

    Previously, name of file for matchcode access. Not filled in R/3.

    Current line character for the MARK statement. However, the language element MARK will only be supported for a short time.

    In R/2, maximum number of pages per list. Not filled in R/3.

    ABAP prefix for background jobs. Not filled in R/3.


    In R/2, you could process spool files using the TRANSFER statement, set by SY-SPONR. Not filled in R/3.

    Previously, name of external storage file for extracts. Not filled in R/3.

    Previously, maximum number of entries in an internal table. Not filled in R/3.

    Previously, name of an internal table after an access. Not filled in R/3.

    With the statements DESCRIBE TABLE, LOOP AT, and READ TABLE, SY-TOCCU was filled with the value of the initial main memory requirements for the addressed internal table. No longer filled.


    Previously, ID whether an internal table is stored in the paging area. Not filled in R/3.


    Previously, index of last read row in an internal table. Not filled in R/3.

    Previously, offset of internal tables in roll area. Not filled in R/3.


    Previously, company code currency after reading booking segment. Not filled in R/3.


    In R/2, number of selected list row for detail list in window. Use SY-LILLI.


    In R/2, cursor position for detail list in window. Use SY-CUCOL.


    In R/2, index of list for detail list in window. Use SY-LSIND.


    In R/2, cursor position for detail list in window. Use SY-CUROW.


    In R/2, content of selected row for detail list in window. Use SY-LISEL.


    In R/2, window coordinate for detail list in window. No correspondence in R/3.


    In R/2, window coordinate for detail list in window. No correspondence in R/3.


    In R/2, window coordinate for detail list in window. No correspondence in R/3.


    In R/2, window coordinate for detail list in window. No correspondence in R/3.

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    ABAP Glossary

    ABAP Glossary



    Advanced Business Application Language. The SAP programming language for application programming.

    ABAP Dictionary

    Central information repository for application and system data. The ABAP Dictionary contains data definitions (metadata) that allow you to describe all of the data structures in the system (like tables, views, and data types) in one place.

    This eliminates redundancy.

    ABAP Editor

    Tool in the ABAP Workbench in which you enter the source code of ABAP programs and check their syntax. You can also navigate from the ABAP Editor to the other tools in the ABAP Workbench.

    ABAP Memory

    ABAP Memory is a memory area in the internal session (roll area) of an ABAP program. Data within this area is retained within a sequence of program calls, allowing you to pass data between programs that call one another. It is also possible to pass data between sessions using SAP Memory.

    ABAP Objects
    The ABAP runtime environment or the object-oriented extension of ABAP. ABAP Objects uses classes to create objects.

    ABAP Processor

    The ABAP processor executes the processing logic of the application program, and communicates with the database interface.

    ABAP Query

    Allows you to create simple reports without having to know any ABAP.

    ABAP Workbench
    The ABAP Workbench is a fully-fledged development environment for applications in the ABAP language. With it, you can create, edit, test, and organize application developments. It contains a range of tools including the Screen Painter, ABAP Editor, and Repository Browser.

    Aggregated Data Types

    Data types built up of a series of single field types. An aggregated data type can be a structure or an internal table. With aggregated types, you can either access the whole object or individual fields.

    Application Logic
    Generic term for the parts of application programs that process application-relevant data.

    Actual Parameter
    When you pass parameters to a procedure, the actual parameters are the parameters that you pass from the program. They are passed to the formal parameters within the routine.

    Application Server
    The level within the client/server architecture in which application logic runs.

    A component of a class in ABAP Objects. Attributes contain the data of a class. They are used by the methods of classes.

    Background Processing

    Program processing without user dialogs.


    Development method that starts with the lowest components in a hierarchy and becomes more generalized as the development project continues. The opposite of top-down.

    Business API (BAPI)

    Standard interface in the R/3 System that allows the system to communicate with components of other business software suites.



    A reference assignment in ABAP Objects. It is checked for correctness at runtime, not in the syntax check.

    Template for objects in ABAP Objects. You can define classes either locally in an ABAP program, or globally using the Class Builder in the ABAP Workbench.

    You can either define a new class from first principles, or derive one using inheritance. Classes can implement interfaces.

    Class Builder

    ABAP Workbench tool used to create classes and interfaces.

    Class Reference

    Data type of a reference variable or object reference that allows you to access all of the visible components of an class.

    A unit within an R/3 System that is complete in a legal and organizational sense, and which has its own user masters and own tables.

    Client Handling
    Users working in a particular client are only allowed to use certain transactions, as specified in the administration data for that client. The R/3 System automatically enforces this restriction.

    When you program database accesses, it is possible to bypass automatic client handling.

    Client/Server Architecture
    An architecture in which data and applications are distributed over different hosts in order to make the most efficient use of each host’s resources.

    An object-oriented collection of tables.

    Explanatory notes in the source code of a program that make it easier to understand. This makes subsequent maintenance and support easier. You can make a whole line into a comment by placing a * at the beginning of the line.

    Alternatively, if you place a " anywhere in a line, the rest of that line becomes a comment.

    Company Code
    A legally-independent unit within a client that has its own fiscal year end.

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    A data object declared statically with a declarative statement. They allow you to store data under a particular name within the memory area of a program. The value of a constant must be defined when you declare it. It cannot subsequently be changed.

    A file containing several programming units that all have the same type. For example, you can have a container for subroutines.

    A technique for avoiding repeated database access or calculations with data in a program. You create contexts using the Context Builder in the ABAP Workbench. They contain key fields, definitions of the relationships between the fields, and other fields that can be derived or calculated using the key field values.

    Control Levels
    A series of lines in an internal table or extract dataset that forms a group based on the contents of one or more of its fields.

    Control Level Processing
    Used in an internal table or extract dataset to form groups of entries.

    Data Control Language (DCL)

    Statements for authorization and consistency checks. Not used in the R/3 System, since the system is itself responsible for checking data.

    Data Definition Language (DDL)

    Language for defining the attributes of a database management system and creating and administering database tables. It is not contained in Open SQL.

    Data Dictionary
    See ABAP Dictionary.

    Data Manipulation Language (DML)
    Statements for reading and changing data in database tables.

    Set of data that is part of a database system and is managed by the database management system.

    Database Commit
    A COMMIT WORK in a relational database system.

    Database Logical Unit of Work (LUW)
    A logical unit of work is a set of database operations. They belong together, and are either all executed (commit) or all canceled (rollback).

    Database Rollback
    A ROLLBACK WORK in a relational database system.

    Database Cursor
    A mechanism for passing data from the database to an ABAP program. An open cursor is linked to a multiple-line selection in the database table for which it was opened.

    You can place the lines of the selection one by one into a flat target object and process them.

    Database Interface

    The part of a work process that links it to the database. It converts Open SQL into Standard SQL, and allows the application server to communicate with the database.

    Database Server

    Host on which the database is installed.

    Database Table

    Most databases that are used for business applications are based on the relational database model, in which the real world is represented by tables.

    Data Element
    Describes the business function of a table field. Its technical attributes are based on a domain, and its business function is described by its field labels and documentation.

    Data Object
    Name for an instance of a data type in ABAP. A data object occupies a field in memory.

    Data Type
    Describes the technical attributes of a data object. ABAP uses the data type of a field to interpret its contents. There are single field types, aggregated types, and object types.

    Declaration Part
    Part of every program or procedure. It contains data, selection screen, and class definitions that are visible throughout the program or procedure.

    Deep Structure
    A structure that contains an internal table as a component.

    Deep Tables
    An internal table whose line type is a deep structure.

    Dialog Module
    Statement block that describes the different states (PBO, PAI, user input) of a screen. A module pool contains a set of dialog modules.

    Dialog Program
    A program that contains (or consists entirely of) dialog modules.

    Link between work processes and users. It receives user interaction from the SAPgui, and directs it to a free work process.

    Specifies the technical attributes of a data element - its data type, length, possible values, and appearance on the screen. Each data element has an underlying domain. A single domain can be the basis for several data elements. Domains are objects in the ABAP Dictionary.

    Double Byte Character Set
    Two byte code system for extensive character sets such as Japanese or Chinese.


    Elementary Types

    There are eight predefined elementary types: Character string (C), numeric string (N), date field (D), time field (T), hexadecimal field (X), integer (I), floating point number (F), and packed number (P).

    You can use these types as the basis for further types that you create either locally in a program or globally in the ABAP Dictionary.


    Property of objects in object-oriented programming. Each object has an external interface. The implementation of the object is encapsulated, that is, invisible externally.

    Event Block

    A series of statements that are processed when a particular event occurs when a program runs or in selection screen and list processing. Each event block begins with an event keyword, and ends at the introductory keyword of the next event block.

    Sequential dataset in the memory area of a program. An extract dataset consists of a sequence of records of a pre-defined structure. However, the structure need not be identical for all records. In one extract dataset, you can store records of different length and structure one after the other.


    Area in memory with address and length. Data objects in ABAP occupy fields. The contents of a field are interpreted according to the data type of the relevant data object.

    Field Symbol
    Placeholder or symbolic name fr a field. Field symbols do not occupy any space, but instead point to a data object.

    Flat Structure
    Structure consisting only of elementary data types.

    Flow Logic
    See Screen Flow Logic.

    Foreign Key
    One or more fields in a table that occur as key fields in another table.

    Formal Parameter

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    Placeholder for passing values to a procedure. Formal parameters declare the number and types of the actual parameters that will be passed to the procedure.

    Forward Navigation

    Forward navigation allows you to access an object by double-clicking its name in the source code of an ABAP program or in an object list.

    Function Builder
    ABAP Workbench tool used to create, display, modify, and delete function modules and function groups.

    Function Group
    Program with type F that contains function modules. Created using the Function Builder.

    Function Library

    Library of existing function modules in the ABAP Workbench.

    Function Module

    Procedure that can only be created within a type F program, but which can be called from any ABAP program within the R/3 System. You create them using the Function Builder in the ABAP Workbench. A function module has a defined parameter interface.


    This is the interface for the R/3 communication protocols (RFC, CPI/C). It can communicate with other application servers in the same R/3 System, with other R/3 Systems, with R/2 Systems, or with non-SAP systems.

    Generic Attributes
    Attributes that are not fully typed. The missing attributes are specified dynamically at runtime.

    Global Data

    Data that is visible throughout a program (and also in procedures that it calls).

    GUI Status

    Each screen has a GUI status. The status is a collection of interactive interface elements that allows the user to select functions. A GUI Status is an independent development object within an ABAP program. You create and edit them using the Menu Painter in the ABAP Workbench.

    GUI Title
    Title of a screen that appears in the title bar of the window. A GUI title is an independent development object within an ABAP program. You create and edit them using the Menu Painter in the ABAP Workbench.


    Hashed Table

    An internal table whose entries you can access by specifying the key. The system manages the table using a hash algorithm. The advantage of this is that the search overhead does not increase with the size of the table.

    Header Line

    Work area for table access. You can place the successive lines of an internal table into the header line and process them.

    Include Program

    A technique for modularizing the source code. Program with type I. Allows you to reuse code in different programs. The source code of an include program is fully incorporated into the source code of the program in which the include statement occurs.

    Index Table

    An internal table for which the system maintains a linear index. You can use the index to access entries in the table. There are two kinds of index tables: Standard tables and sorted tables.


    A special way of defining a class. You can use an existing class to derive a new class. Derived classes (subclasses) inherit the attributes and methods of the original class (superclass). They may also have new methods, or redefine existing ones.


    Part of a class definition in ABAP Objects.You can define interfaces either locally in an ABAP program, or globally using the Class Builder in the ABAP Workbench. Classes can implement interfaces.

    They then adopt all of the components of the interface. The class must implement all of the methods of the interface itself.

    Interface Reference

    Data type of a reference variable or object reference that allows you to access all of the visible components of an interface.

    Interface Work Area

    A special data object that you use to pass data between screens or logical databases and ABAP programs.

    Internal Tables

    Data object consisting of a set of lines with the same data type. There are different access types for internal tables: Sorted and unsorted index tables, and hashed tables, and also different line types:

    Vectors, "real" tables, with flat structures, and deep tables. You should use internal tables whenever you need to use structured data within a program.

    A technique for linking two or more tables. The tables involved must have at least one common column.

    Runtime environment for all R/3 applications. It is independent of hardware, operating system, and database. Has the following functions: Running applications, administration of users and processes, database access, communication with other applications, control and administration of the R/3 System.
    Selected fields of a table used to identify table records. A key may be either unique or non-unique.

    Lists are output-oriented screens which display formatted, structured data. They are defined, formatted, and filled using ABAP commands. Although they are output-oriented, you can include input fields in a list.

    Data object, without a name, that you create in the source code of a program. It is fully defined by its value. You cannot change the value of a literal.

    Local Data

    Data that is only visible in the current program (including its subroutines) or procedure.

    Logical Database Builder

    Tool in the ABAP Workbench for creating and editing logical databases.

    Logical Database

    An ABAP program that retrieves data from various database tables. The dataset covered by a logical database program is sometimes referred to itself as the logical database. The lines of the relevant tables are passed one by one to the program that is using the logical database. You can use a logical database with any number of executable programs.



    A technique for modularizing the source code. The DEFINE statement introduces a set of statements that you can then use at any point within a program. Unlike include programs, macros can only be used in the program in which you define them.

    Menu Painter

    A tool in the ABAP Workbench that allows you to create menus and assign functions to function keys and push****ons.

    Data that describes other data. Data definitions are metadata. They are stored in the ABAP Dictionary.


    A procedure that is a component of a class in ABAP Objects.Methods represent the functions of a class. They work with the attributes. Methods can only be defined in the implementation parts of classes.


    Splitting a program into various parts (modules). There are two kinds of modules - those that are included in the source code of the program when it is generated (macros (local) or include programs (global)), and those that are called as independent modules at runtime.

    These are known as procedures. Modularization makes large programs easier to understand and maintain, and reduces the amount of redundancy.

    Module Pool
    Type M program containing the dialog modules of the screens in the program.

    Native SQL

    An access method that uses database-specific statements. Native SQL statements are not interpreted, and are passed to the database without any checks.

    You should not use Native SQL statements, since they are database-specific (your program will no longer be portable), and ABAP does not check to ensure that the statements are correct.

    Nested Structure

    A structure that itself contains a structure as a component.



    A piece of code containing data (attributes) and providing services (methods). Objects are instances of classes in ABAP Objects.

    Object Reference

    Object references are used to access the attributes and methods of an object in ABAP Objects. Object references are contained in reference variables.

    Object Types

    Object types are used to describe objects. They contain both data and functions. Classes and interfaces are both object types. They are part of ABAP Objects.

    Open SQL

    A set of statements that allows you to access the database from an ABAP program. Open SQL statements are fully portable to any of the database platforms supported by SAP. Open SQL is a subset of Standard SQL (without the DDL part), but also contains SAP-specific extensions.



    1. A data object in a program whose value can either be entered by the user at runtime or be passed from another program.
    2. A value passed when you call a procedure or program from another program. See also actual parameter and formal parameter.

    Parameter Interface

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    A method by which programs and the procedures that they call can exchange data. When you write subroutines or procedures, you define formal parameters, which define the type, number, and order of the actual parameters that should be passed.

    An attribute of objects in object-oriented programming. Identically-named methods behave differently in different classes.

    Presentation Server
    The host that receives input from the user and presents output from the system.

    A modularization technique. Unlike source code modules (macros, include programs), procedures have interfaces for data transfer. ABAP contains the following kinds of procedures:

    • Subroutines: Local modularization (FORM)
    • Function modules Global modularization
    • Methods: Contain the functions of classes and their instances in ABAP Objects.

    Process After Input (PAI)
    Part of the screen flow logic. PAI processing determines what happens after the user has chosen a function on the screen.

    Process Before Output (PBO)
    The part of the screen flow logic that determines the processing steps that occur before a screen is displayed.

    Processing Block
    Any ABAP statement that does not belong to the declaration part, that is, the event blocks, dialog modules, and procedures.

    Processing Logic
    Processing logic implements the business functions of the R/3 System. It is contained in ABAP programs.

    Program Types

    • Type 1 Report, executable program (input data ® process data ® display data)
    • Type M: Module pool, started using a transaction code.
    • Type F: Function group, container for function modules. Function modules may only be programmed within a function group. You create them using the Function Builder in the ABAP Workbench.
    • Type K: Class definitions, containers for global classes in ABAP Objects. You create them using the Class Builder in the ABAP Workbench.
    • Type J: Interface definitions, containers for global interfaces in ABAP Objects. You create them using the Class Builder in the ABAP Workbench.
    • Type S: Subroutine pools, containers for subroutines. Non-executable.
    • Type I: Include programs. Non-executable.



    R/3 Repository
    Part of the database containing all development objects of the ABAP Workbench, such as programs, screens, and function modules.

    A program in the ABAP runtime environment that catches runtime errors and triggers a short dump.


    See object reference.

    Reference Variable

    Data object that contains an object reference. The data type of a reference variables can be a class reference or an interface reference.

    Remote Function Call (RFC)

    An interface protocol based on CPI-C that allows programs in different systems to communicate with one another. External applications and tools can use ABAP functions, and the R/3 System can access external systems.

    Executable program with a three-stage function: Data input ® data processing ® data output. Reports read and calculate using data from database tables, without actually changing it.

    Repository Browser
    A tool in the ABAP Workbench that provides a categorized list of development objects for a development class, program, function group, or class. When you double-click an object in the list, it is opened (along with the correct Workbench tool) for display or editing. Transaction SE80.

    See procedure.

    Runtime Error

    Error that occurs while a program is running, often because the error could not be determined statically by the syntax check.

    Runtime Environment

    Umbrella term for screen and ABAP processors.

    The SAP Graphical User Interface is the frontend of the R/3 System. It allows users to run applications and enter and display data.


    A logical unit consisting of dialog steps, whose changes are written to the database in a single database LUW.

    SAP Memory

    This is a memory area to which all sessions within a SAPgui have access. You can use SAP memory either to pass data from one program to another within a session (as with ABAP memory) or to pass data from one session to another.\

    SAP Transaction

    A dialog-driven program, or any program started using a transaction code.


    A screen (also referred to sometimes as a dynamic program or "dynpro") consists of the screen itself and the flow logic, which controls how the screen is processed. You create both the screen and its flow logic in the Screen Painter.

    Screen Flow Logic

    The screen flow logic consists of PBO and PAI, and controls most user interaction. The R/3 Basis system contains a special language for programming screen flow logic.
    Screen Painter

    Tool in the ABAP Workbench, used to create screens and their flow logic.

    Screen Processor

    The screen processor executes the screen flow logic. It takes control of communication between the work process and the SAPgui, calls processing logic modules, and passes the contents of the screen fields back to the program for processing.

    Screen Table

    Table on a screen, created using the step loop or table control technique.

    Screen Type

    There are three screen types in the R/3 System: Screens, selection screens, and lists.
    Selection Screen

    Special screens used to enter values in ABAP programs. Unlike normal screens, they are not defined in the Screen Painter, but using ABAP statements in the program.

    Selection View

    Selection views are a collection of fields from different database tables. You can create them in the Repository Browser or the Logical Database Builder in the ABAP Workbench.


    The R/3 window in the SAPgui represents a session. After logging on, the user can open up to five further sessions (R/3 windows) within the single SAPgui. These behave almost like independent SAPguis.

    Shared Memory

    The memory area shared by all work processes.

    Short Dump

    The text that accompanies a runtime error. This should enable you to find and correct the error.

    Single Field Type

    A data type in ABAP whose data objects occupy a single field. Elementary types and references are single field types.

    Sorted Table
    An index table that is always stored correctly sorted according to its table key.

    SPA/GPA Parameters
    Values stored in the user-specific ABAP memory. You create SPA/GPA parameters using the Repository Browser in the ABAP Workbench.

    SQL Report
    An executable program that does not use a logical database. Instead, it defines its own selection screen, and reads its own data from the database using Open SQL statements.

    Standard SQL
    A largely standardized language for accessing relational databases. It consists of three parts:

    • Data Manipulation Language (DML)
    • Data Definition Language (DDL)
    • Data Control Language (DCL)

    Standard Table

    An unsorted index table.


    A line of an ABAP program. ABAP contains the following kinds of statements: declarative statements, control statements, call statements, operational statements, database statements, and modularization statements.

    A structure is a logically-connected set of fields. It is a data object containing a sequence of any data types. Structures can be flat, deep, or nested.

    Structured Query Language (SQL)

    Standard language for database access See also Native SQL, Open SQL, Standard SQL.

    The resulting class when you use inheritance to derive a class from a superclass.

    A special Open SQL selection statement that you can use under certain conditions to form an extra query.

    A procedure that you define in a program using the FORM statement, and which you can call any number of times from any ABAP program using the PERFORM statement.

    When you call the subroutine, you can pass parameters to it. Subroutines are normally used locally, that is, called in the same program in which they are defined.


    The class from which a subclass is derived in inheritance.


    Text Pool

    A set of texts belonging to a program. You address them using text symbols in the source code. The text pool can be translated into other languages.

    Text Symbol

    A data object that is generated when you start a program from the text pool of the program.


    A development method that starts with the highest level of a hierarchy and becomes more specialized as the development project goes on. The opposite of bottom-up.

    A set of work steps that belong together. In the context of database changes, the term stands for a change of state in the database. It is also used as an abbreviation of SAP transaction.

    Transaction Code

    A sequence of letters and digits that starts an SAP transaction when you enter it in the command field. Transaction codes are normally used to start dialog-driven programs. However, you can also use them to start reports. You create transaction codes in the Repository Browser. They are linked to an ABAP program and an initial screen.

    Transparent Table

    You define transparent tables in the ABAP Dictionary. They are then created in the database. You can also use transparent tables independently of the R/3 System. Cluster techniques are not used, since they cannot be read using Open SQL.



    A named data object that you can declare statically using declarative statements, or dynamically while a program is running. They allow you to store changeable data under a particular name within the memory area of a program.


    An internal table whose line type is an elementary type.

    A virtual table that does not contain any data, but instead provides an application-oriented view of one or more ABAP Dictionary tables.

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    Syntax Conventions

    Syntax Conventions

    The conventions for syntax statements in this documentation are as follows:
    Keywords and options of statements are uppercase.

    Variables, or words that stand for values that you fill in, are in angle brackets. Do not include the angle brackets in the value you use (exception: field symbols).
    Square brackets indicate that you can use none, one, or more of the enclosed options. Do not include the brackets in your option.
    A bar between two options indicates that you can use either one or the other of the options.
    Parentheses are to be typed as part of the command.
    The comma means you may choose as many of the options shown as you like, separating your choices with commas. The commas are part of the syntax.

    Variables with indices mean that you can list as many variables as you like. They must be separated with the same symbol as the first two.
    Dots mean that you can put anything here that is allowed in the context.

    In syntax statements, keywords are in upper case, variables are in angle brackets. You can disregard case when you type keywords in your program. WRITE is the same as Write is the same as write.

    Output on the output screen is either shown as a screen shot or in the following format:
    Screen output .


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